Public Participation In Spatial Planning In Poland As An Element Of Evidence Based Urban Planning – Case Study Of Lodz
Journal of European Economy, Vol. 14, Number 3, September 2015, p 280 -289
|JEL: R52, O21||Full text (PDF)|
The paper presents the problem of public participation in spatial planning in Poland. The author presents the Polish spatial planning system and shows the possibilities of local community participating in the process of preparing the local acts. Significant attention is paid to showing how information from local society could be used to take right decision and could become the basis of the evidence based urban planning on local level. To illustrate the theoretical problem presented in the first part of the paper, the author of the article used the case study of Lodz as the third largest Polish city. The author presents how inhabitants participate in the spatial planning process of the city. The analysis carried out in this paper shows that remarks from local society are one of sources of information and data about the space of gmina.
Evangelos Siskos, Konstantia Darvidou
OIL AND NATURAL GAS TRADE BALANCE AND PRODUCTION EFFECTS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COOPERATION COUNTRIES
Journal of European Economy, Vol. 16, Number 3, September 2017, p.261-283
|JEL: L71, L95, Q35, Q43, F14, J23.
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Most European Union and Black Sea Economic Cooperation countries are net importers of petroleum and natural gas. Searching for new deposits and construction of new pipelines can improve energy security in the region. The problem is topical for Greece which has a developed refinery industry and needs to improve its trade balance to repay the accumulated external and public debt. Several new pipeline initiatives through Greece can support relations between the EU and BSEC countries. The paper provides previous research review about energy dependency and the effects of trade, production and transportation of hydrocarbons. Next we provide analysis of the effect of the trade on balance of payments in both the EU and BSEC countries. Import dependency of GDP on oil and natural gas is especially large in Malta, Georgia, Ukraine, Serbia and Latvia. On the other hand Russia and Azerbaijan are large net exporters of hydrocarbons. Then we analyse the impact of mining on labour market and refinery industry development. On average larger value added in mining leads to larger employment at least for males and middle age group of people. But the effect largely varies across countries and time periods. Together with construction of new pipelines growth of extraction can result in dozens of thousands of new jobs in Greece. There is a close link between value added in mining and compensation of employees in that industry. We have found evidence that the clustering effect between mining and manufacture of refined petroleum products and coke exists only in some EU countries.
Price-setting practices for new product introductions: Evidence from Bulgaria
Journal of European Economy, Vol. 16, Number 4, December 2017, p.407-415
|JEL: M31.||Full text (PDF)|
This paper presents the importance of the price-setting practices in the Bulgarian companies. According to the published research, the pricing, including that for the new products at their introduction into the market, is one of the most complex decisions in the company. When setting the price for a new product, the companies apply three price-setting practices: value-based pricing, competition-based pricing, and cost-based pricing. Results of empirical study amongst Bulgarian companies reveal that the most important price-setting factor for the tangible products are the prices of competitors’ products, and for the services - the fit between price and product parameters.
new product introduction; price-setting practice; value-based pricing; competition-based pricing; cost-based pricing.