Claus-Friedrich Laaser, Klaus Schrader
Poland's integration into the EU's division of labour: a benchmark for Ukraine?
Journal of European Economy, Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2006, pp.259-277
|JEL: F60, P00||Full text (PDF)|
The paper focuses on the Polish transformation process as well as on the structural adjustments in its trade patterns in the course of transition and integration into the European Union. The Polish «road to Brussels» might serve as a benchmark for institutional transformation and economic development of the Ukraine willing to integrate into the EU division of labour even though the EU does not grant an explicit accession perspective. Regarding systemic transformation, Poland has undergone a thorough process of institutional change to create a functioning market economy and to adjust to the acquis communautaire. The statistical analysis and a gravity model of Polish trade relations show that the country has successfully integrated into the EU Common Market although the degree of integration with the other EU members varies substantially, notably for Polish exports. The sectoral analysis of Polish trade flows reveals that the technology content has increased significantly, indicating the participation in advanced production networks.
Systemic transformation, Polish trade patterns, Eastern enlargement, regional integration, gravity model, specialization patterns.
Peter van der Hoek
Romania and the European Union enlargement
Journal of European Economy, Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2006, pp.278-289
|JEL: P00||Full text (PDF)|
The article considers the issues of Romania's membership in the EU. The author compares the EU’s «Eastern» enlargement of 2004 with previous enlargements. As it turns out, the EU becomes poorer with every next enlargement: its per capita GDP decreases every time compared with per capita GDP of the six constitutor countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxemburg, and Netherlands). There are also sufficient economic arguments for postponement of Romania's accession in 2007 (or 2008). Romania does not exhibit the same macroeconomic stability the other countries of south-eastern Europe do; its welfare is lower, and its progress in building market economy is slower compared to the countries that joined the EU in 2004. Moreover, Romania achieved little progress in fighting corruption. Finally, the author discusses the consequences of the rejection of the EU constitution by the French and the Dutch in 2005. In view of the ratification problems, five options are suggested as possible solutions to the problems. The most probable is that the EU will proceed on the basis of the Nice treaty and political agreements. Further enlargement of the EU will be much more difficult to realize than in the past. This does not apply to Bulgaria and Romania, since the accession treaties were already signed in 2005, and they will join the EU in 2007 or 2008. However, this does apply to Croatia and Turkey, with whom the EU opened accession negotiations in October 2005.
Enlargement, European Union, Romania.
State investment management in the light of international experience
Journal of European Economy, Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2006, pp. 290-306
|JEL: P00, F10, H83|
The author considers major goals of state investment management. Special attention is focused at measures taken by state authorities to attract and use foreign direct investments (FDIs). Also analyzed are the international experience, especially the EU practice, of state investment management organisations and the WTO requirements in the context of Ukraine's integration strategy and WTO-accession perspectives.